Russia Legal System Legal System and how it works: Russian legal system follows statutory laws which are based on legislation unlike case laws which is based on judicial precedent. The main legal body of comprises of Constitution, Federal constitutional laws, federal laws, presidential decrees, governmental regulations, and laws of regional constituents of the Russian Federation. Peter Gerendasi 2009, Doing business and investing in Russian Federation [online], Pricewaterhouse Coopers, Russia, p.7, Available According to Legal system of Russia, the judiciary is divided into three branches; the regular court system which has the Supreme Court on top, the arbitration court system which has High Court of Arbitration on top, and the Constitutional Court as a single body without any courts under it. In case of disputes between any business entities, the case is usually taken to arbitration court for trial. Vladimir Davydov Legal system of Russia [online], Available from: http://www.uoregon.edu/~jbonine/review.html [Accessed: 25.3.2010]. According to the Russian laws, a Russian court cannot nullify a statute holding it unconstitutional. Vladimir Davydov further states that â€œupon motion of an interested governmental organization, it can hold a statute or an executive enactment unconstitutional, or give its interpretation of the Constitution.â€ When an issue of constitutionality of an act is raised during proceedings before a court, there is a rule that such a case is automatically referred to the Constitutional court. Further, the Supreme Court of Russia has the right of legislative initiative and can submit its conclusions conceding the interpretation of laws. Its views are considered highly authoritative and always taken into account by lawmakers. The Supreme Court issues guiding instructions for lower courts on specific matters of law which are a binding upon all the courts, state agencies and officials who use such laws and hence it is treated as a source of law in Russia. Vladimir Davydov Legal system of Russia [online], Available from: http://www.uoregon.edu/~jbonine/review.html [Accessed: 25.3.2010]. Government rules and regulations establishing business The company needs to complete the following to be fully operable: production and registration of a corporate seal; register with the State Statistics Committee; register as a taxpayer; register with the Medical Insurance Fund, Social Insurance Fund and Pension Fund; and open bank accounts. Approximately it takes six weeks to fulfil such actions. All records of a company must be made, expressed and maintained in Russian, according to Russian bookkeeping standards. No matter Russian or foreign each company which runs business in the Russian Federation, has an obligation to register with tax authorities. Taxpayers must file tax returns monthly regularly and submit balance sheet quarterly to tax authority. The founders when establishing a company enter into an agreement and take an obligation. The charter and the foundation agreement are the documents that are required to be filed with the registration authorities. The content and structure of these documents are determined by the Russian law. Establishing a company in Russia [online], Available from: http://www.ruscham.com/en/rossinfo/db/13.html [Accessed: 25.3.2010]. Ownership of Business, Land and Office Most land (unlike buildings and premises) is not privately owned, but held by federal, regional and local authorities. Owners of property built on state land may purchase the land, but many property owners prefer to lease land from the state instead. Rights to real estate have to be registered with the State Register. In addition to registration with the State Register, the main technical and legal information on land plots (their measurements, boundaries, buildings standing thereon, etc.) must be recorded in the state land cadastre. Although the Land Code provides that if a building and the underlying land are owned by the same person, it is impossible to sell them separately, the land and the facilities located on it are treated as separate legal interests and may be owned by different persons. In general, Russian law neither imposes major restrictions on foreigners nor makes distinctions between foreigners, Russian legal entities with foreign interest and Russian legal entities/citizens in relation to ownership of land. Apart from land legislation requirements, a prospective developer has to comply with planning regulations that are rather complex and may differ depending on where the project is implemented. Peter Gerendasi 2009, Doing business and investing in Russian Federation [online], Pricewaterhouse Coopers, Russia, p.16, Available Labour/Employment Law The Russian Labor Code outlines the right of employees. If a conflict arises, an employee can demand his right against the protective provisions of the Labor Code in court.The normal working hours in Russia are 8 hours/day and 40 hours/ week. Foreigners entering the Russian Federation must have an identification document recognized by the Russian Federation. The enterprise which invites a foreign national must have obtained a permission to hire foreign employees and thereafter the employer must apply for the individual work permits with respect to each of the employees he is inviting.
The importance of group work in educational process - Essay Example Summarizing is essential to any hand written essay when ever that essay is needed to help people learn about what one might have seen, read or heard. It is used by millions everywhere at every minute in all possible kinds of assignments. What needs to be understood about these summaries is that one needs to recognize when one has to go from explaining and describing to offer a better and a more complex analysis. The group was asked to write on their experience on the work they had done together. And on the time they had spend together as a group working on the assignment that they had been assigned. The few points that this report would signify are: The introduction The makings of a good group-essay A reflective essay Networking and mentoring The Introduction In the start the class was asked to divide into groups of preferably 4 to 5 people. This was the most optimal limit of the groups. The class was also asked to have different personalities in the group, as different personalities brought different aspects to the group. The members chose each other on the basis of nationalities. Though there were almost five different nationalities in the group, the mode of conversation was English as it is understood by most of them. They were Annette, Alan, Rinkesh, and Mohammed. This particular group had quite a few nations, like Hong Kong, India, Arabia, china so they all brought their culture and diversity to the group. The group went through four steps of group work. These four steps are described by Tuckan as â€˜forming,â€™ â€˜storming,â€™ â€˜normingâ€™ and â€˜performingâ€™ (Hingst & Lowe, 2008, 157-165). Accordingly the group came together and introduced themselves in the first stage of forming. In this stage the discussion was light hearted and the topic of the project was discussed. There was no hierarchy managed. Everyone was given an equal chance to speak and put forward their ideas. During this stage no real work was done. In the next stage, the stage called storming; the members were now more in the form of better ways and means of giving out their opinions. In this stage the members become more comfortable with each other and even start taking up different positions as the leaders or the followers. This stage had more acceptance than any of the other stages did. In the next stage (performing), the members became a lot more alert of their jobs and tried to stick to them more and more, they also tried to get more work done and as soon as possible too. In this stage the members had more conflicts and their resolution led to a better understanding between the members of the group. The makings of a good group-essay As the group was required to work on writing an essay, so they needed to identify what made an essay good and what took it beyond good. They learnt that essay marking is divided into five groups which are: 1. Pre-structural 2. Uni-structural 3. Multi-structural 4. Relational 5. Extended abstract The best essay belongs to the category of either Relational or the Extended Abstracts. A college essay is expected of these levels. In these categories the essay shows the high level of understanding which is demonstrated by the number of and method of collection of data/ideas. This is very much obvious from the way the students write, express and explain themselves and their ideas about any number of situations and scenarios. They also show how much they grasped from the theme of the topic by cross-questioning. Both these categories are awarded Distinctions, and high-awards. Unlike these categories the other essays belong to the first three categories which have essays which either dwindle ion the edge of the topic or are not even close to it. These essays show lack of understanding and comprehension and are usually covered up by mismatched points and stories. A reflective essay A reflective essay is one which describes ones communication experiences acquired during any group-work and helps one to put these experiences into practical use by matching them to the theories and concepts learnt in
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.